Wygenerowano:
21.03.2019
08:39:04

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Evolution 2.0

( Marshall, Perry )

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9 Unchallenged, unexamined life is not worth living, as Socrates said. pionier

Syndrom Pioniera



11 I also found an immense chasm between the version of evolution you find in the bookstore and what practising biologists understand evolution to be. ewolucja biologiczna

definiowanie



11 Industries become incestuous as they age. They resist change because change threatens the status quo. Since all professions are run by good old boys' clubs, innovations almost never come from the inside.

For example, Bill Gates was a complete outsider to the computer business. Larry and Sergey, founders of Google, were newcomers to the search engine game. (Early on, they tried to sell their search technology to Yahoo! for $1 million, but Yahoo! turned them down).

Fred Smith, founder of Federal Express, was a virgin in the shipping industry. Ray Kroc of McDonald's wasn't a restaurant veteran; he was a milkshake machine salesman. Lou Gerstner, who engineered a turnaround at IBM, had come from Nabisco and American Express. Before Jack Welch transformed GE, he was a chemical engineer.

Mathematician and quantum physicist Barbara Shipman, a University of Rochester researcher, noticed that the shape of the honeybee’s dance closely mimics something in physics called the flag manifold. Benjamin Franklin, a printer and statesman, discovered that lightning comes from electricity. George Simon Ohm, who discovered "Ohm's law" of electricity, was a schoolteacher. Charles Darwin was a medical school dropout studying for the ministry when he took his famous trip to the Galapagos Islands on the HMS Beagle.

Novel approaches usually come from outsiders. All these people had an outsider's point of view that enabled them to see something to which insiders were blind.

Syndrom Pioniera



16 It’s embarrassing enough to admin dad was an alcoholic, let announce that great-great-grandpa was a baboon. It’s one of the many reasons why religious people don’t want to believe in evolution. ewolucja biologiczna



47 Many standard terms in biology are simplistic and misleading. [...] Narrow language limits our thinking. definiowanie

myślenie



81 Semmelweis was declined reappointment at the Vienna hospital in 1849. He moved to Hungary, where he took a position in a maternity ward. There, mortality rates also fell dramatically.

Word of Semmelweis’ success spread across Europe… and so did opposition to his ideas.

[…]

The term Semmelweis reflex refers to new knowledge being rejected because it overturns entrenched norms, popular beliefs and accepted paradigms.

myślenie

Syndrom Pioniera

naukowcy



167 Only about 3 percent of the genome codes for proteins. ewolucja biologiczna



178 Dawkins at the time was a professor at Oxford University. One of his admirers had created a special endowment for him, The Charles Simyoni Chair for the Public Understanding of Science.

One of the callers asked Dawkins about the Origin of Life. He replied that it was “a happy chemical accident”.

A happy chemical accident?

What kind of answer was that? And this is Oxford's "Professor of the Public Understanding of Science”?!

What if Isaac Newton had watched the apple fall out of the tree, and instead of formulating a theory of gravity, he had proclaimed it happy accident? I was shocked Dawkins didn’t get laughed right out of the studio.

Dawkins

naukowcy



216 I am suggesting that biology must draw upon an additional level of scientific principles beyond traditional physics, including linguistics, information theory and signal processing. Perhaps even art, music and architecture. Fizyka Życia



222 Some years ago, Dawkins wrote a famous GA software program to demonstrate how Darwinian evolution might successfully work. He entered the following random string of letters into the program.

WDLTMNLT DTJBKWIRZREZLMQCO P

One letter at a time, his program evolved this string of letters. After only 43 iterations, by randomly changing letters and deleting results it didn’t want, the program reached its preprogrammed goal of the following sentence:

METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL

This was heralded as a success. However, Dawkins’ software program was programmed to compare each new sentence to the goal sentence and either select it for continued “mutation” or reject it based on whether it more closely resembled the goal than the previous mutation. But his very own “1.0” Darwinian evolution explicitly forbids preprogrammed goals! So Dawkins’ “Weasel” experiment had nothing to do with the true Neo-Darwinism.

ewolucja biologiczna

Dawkins

algorytm genetyczny

modelowanie



228 Aging is accelerated by loss of genetic information, the same information entropy we talked about in chapter 9. CŻC - cykl życiowy człowieka