|Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)|
|Włoski malarz, architekt, filozof, muzyk, pisarz, odkrywca, matematyk, mechanik, anatom, wynalazca, geolog.||Dorastał w bezpośrednim kontakcie z naturą. Kształcenie Leonarda ograniczyło się do czytania, pisania i liczenia. Nigdy nie uczęszczał do szkoły, o czym świadczy fakt, iż nikt nie skorygował jego leworęczności.||"W Mediolanie zdobywa uznanie jako artysta. Mamy dowody, że próbuje się nauczyć łaciny. Bo ten błyskotliwy człowiek, genialny samouk nie ma podstawowych kwalifikacji do pełnienia jakiejkolwiek roli w życiu intelektualnym tamtego okresu. Ktoś kto nie znał łaciny był nikim." - [cytat z filmu "Leonardo da Vinci, geniusz wszechstronny" Francja 2018]|
|Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)|
|Genewski filozof, pisarz i kompozytor. Jeden z najbardziej wpływowych myślicieli Oświecenia. Rousseau z Teresą Levasseur miał pięcioro dzieci, które oddał do sierocińca, nie znając ich imion.|
|Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783)|
Francuski filozof, fizyk i matematyk.
Zasłużony na polu fizyki i matematyki, zwłaszcza w dziedzinie mechaniki teoretycznej (zasada d'Alemberta) i równań różniczkowych (odkrył rachunek pochodnych cząstkowych).
Jako pierwszy zwrócił uwagę na społeczne i biologiczne uwarunkowania ludzkich pojęć i sądów o świecie. Patrz Matrix
|D'Alembert uczęszczał najpierw do szkoły prywatnej; w wieku 12 lat pod wpływem rodziny ojca, wstąpił do prowadzonego przez jansenistów kolegium Czterech Narodów (znanego również jako "Collège Mazarin"), gdzie do 1735 r. studiował filozofię, prawo i sztukę. W późniejszym życiu kierował się regułami kartezjańskiego racjonalizmu wpojonymi mu przez jansenistów. Choć janseniści nakłaniali młodzieńca do kariery duchownego, d'Alembert podjął studia prawnicze (uzyskując w 1738 tytuł adwokata), później medycynę. - [Wikipedia pol. 2012.09.14]|
|David Ricardo (1772-1823)|
|Angielski ekonomista, zaliczany do grona klasyków ekonomii.
David Ricardo was born in London in 1772. His father, a successful stockbroker, introduced him to the Stock Exchange at the formative age of fourteen. During his career in finance, he amassed a personal fortune which allowed him to retire at the age of forty-two. Thereafter, he pursued a political career and further developed his economic ideas and policy proposals. A man of very little formal education, Ricardo arguably became, with the exception of Adam Smith, the most influential political economist of all time.
Ricardo was the first economist to make extensive use of deductive reasoning and arithmetical models to illustrate the anticipated reactions to juxtaposed market forces and responsive human action. His modes of analysis have become identified with economics as an academic discipline.
Like Smith, Ricardo believed that minimal government intervention best served an economy. His contributions to economics are numerous and include the theory of “hard money” to hedge inflation, the law of diminishing returns, developed along with his close friend the classical economist T. R. Malthus, and the labor theory of value.
One of Ricardo’s most significant contributions to economics is the law of comparative advantage as applied to international commerce, which grew out of Adam Smith’s division of labor and has become the central argument for free trade and open markets. - [Źródło 2012.09.14]
|Auguste Comte (1798-1857)|
Francuski filozof i pozytywista, twórca terminu socjologia.
||Studiował w Szkole Politechnicznej w Paryżu jednak nie ukończył studiów. Następnie mieszkał w Paryżu dając dorywczo korepetycje z matematyki. Szybko popadł w biedę z której wychodził z trudem. Mimo że był osobą o wybitnych zdolnościach, nigdy nie został dopuszczony do funkcji akademickich. - [Wikipedia pol. 2012.09.14]|
|Gustave Eiffel (1832–1923)|
|He made his name with various bridges for the French railway network, most famously the Garabit viaduct. He is best known for the world-famous Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, France. After his retirement from engineering, Eiffel concentrated his energies on research into meteorology and aerodynamics, making important contributions in both fields.||
Eiffel was not a studious child, and thought his classes at the Lycée Royal in Dijon boring and a waste of time, although in his last two years, influenced by his teachers for history and literature, he began to study seriously, so that he managed to gain his baccalauréats in humanities and science. An important part in his education was played by his uncle, Jean-Baptiste Mollerat, who had invented a process for distilling vinegar and had a large chemical works near Dijon, and one of his uncle's friends, the chemist Michel Perret. Both men spent a lot of time with the young Eiffel, teaching him about everything from chemistry and mining to theology and philosophy.
Eiffel went on to attend the Collège Sainte-Barbe in Paris, in order to prepare for the difficult entrance exams set by the most important engineering colleges in France. Eiffel had hoped to enter the École Polytechnique, but his tutors decided that his performance was not good enough, and instead he qualified for entry to the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in Paris, which offered a rather more vocational training
|Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931)|
|Uznawany jest za inicjatorów psychologii społecznej i głównego przedstawiciela psychologizmu w socjologii. Główną dziedziną zainteresowań Le Bona była psychologia społeczna, a zwłaszcza psychologia tłumu i zbiorowości, ale interesował się także anatomią, fizjologią, antropologią, fizyką, chemią, etnopsychologią i historią cywilizacji, etnografią, archeologią i paleografią oraz teorią wychowania i psychologią wychowawczą.||Le Bon po ukończeniu studiów lekarskich i uzyskał stopień doktora medycyny - [Wikipedia pol. 2012.09.14]|
|George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)|
|Irlandzki dramaturg i prozaik.||"Schools and schoolmasters, as we have them today, are not popular as places of education and teachers, but rather prisons and turnkeys in which children are kept to prevent them disturbing and chaperoning their parents" - George Bernard Shaw.|
|Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1961)|
|Amerykański pisarz, prozaik. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction. Laureat Nagrody Nobla w dziedzinie literatury w roku 1954.|
|George Orwell (1903-1950)|
|Considered perhaps the 20th century's best chronicler of English culture, Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry, fiction and polemical journalism. He is best known for the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) and the allegorical novella Animal Farm (1945), which together have sold more copies than any two books by any other 20th-century author.||He studied at Eton until December 1921, when he left at age 18½. Blair's academic performance reports suggest that he neglected his academic studies.|
|Ray Bradbury (1920–2012)|
|Amerykański pisarz, należący do czołówki światowych twórców fantastyki.||
Ukończył liceum w Los Angeles, ale z powodów finansowych nie mógł pozwolić sobie na studia. By mieć za co żyć, sprzedawał gazety. Uczył się sam w bibliotece.
"Libraries raised me. I don’t believe in colleges and universities. I believe in libraries because most students don’t have any money. When I graduated from high school, it was during the Depression and we had no money. I couldn’t go to college, so I went to the library three days a week for 10 years." - Ray Bradbury
|Keith Moon (1946-1978)|
|English musician. The drummer for the rock band The Who. Widely considered one of the greatest drummers of all time.||The only training he ever received was at 16 years old when he had 3 or 4 drum lessons with Carlo Little (an early member of the Rolling Stones).|
|James Cameron (1954-)|
|Is a Canadian film director, film producer, deep-sea explorer, screenwriter, visual artist and editor. His writing and directing work includes The Terminator (1984), Aliens (1986), The Abyss (1989), Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), True Lies (1994), Titanic (1997), Dark Angel (2000–02), and Avatar (2009). In the time between making Titanic and Avatar, Cameron spent several years creating many documentary films (specifically underwater documentaries) and co-developed the digital 3D Fusion Camera System. Described by a biographer as part-scientist and part-artist, Cameron has also contributed to underwater filming and remote vehicle technologies.||
Cameron grew up in Chippawa, Ontario with his brothers Mike and John David Cameron and attended Stamford Collegiate School in Niagara Falls; his family moved to Brea, California in 1971 when he was 17. Cameron enrolled at Fullerton College, a 2-year community college, in 1973 to study physics. He switched to English, then dropped out before the start of the fall 1974 semester.
After dropping out of Sonora High School, he went to further his secondary education at Brea Olinda High School. After graduating, he worked several jobs such as truck driving and wrote when he had time. During this period he taught himself about special effects: "I'd go down to the USC library and pull any thesis that graduate students had written about optical printing, or front screen projection, or dye transfers, anything that related to film technology. That way I could sit down and read it, and if they'd let me photocopy it, I would. If not, I'd make notes."
|Steven Spielberg ()|
|Stanley Kubrick ()|
|Orson Welles ()|
|Jimi Hendrix ()|
|Le Corbusier (1887-1965)|
|James Watt (1736–1819)|
|Was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.||
Watt did not attend school regularly; initially he was mostly schooled at home by his mother but later he attended Greenock Grammar School. He exhibited great manual dexterity, engineering skills and an aptitude for mathematics, while Latin and Greek failed to interest him.
When he was eighteen, his mother died and his father's health began to fail. Watt travelled to London to study instrument-making for a year, then returned to Scotland, settling in the major commercial city of Glasgow intent on setting up his own instrument-making business.
|Wright Brothers (Wilbur 1867–1912) (Orwille 1871–1948)|
|Were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who were credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. In the two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.||
They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice. From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots.
Both brothers attended high school, but did not receive diplomas.
|Michael Faraday (1791-1867)|
|Charles Darwin (1809-1882)|
|Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890)|
|Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)|
|Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)|
|Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)|
|Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)|
|Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)|
|Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)|
|George Boole (1815-1864)|
|English mathematician, philosopher and logician. His work was in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, and he is now best known as the author of The Laws of Thought. As the inventor of the prototype of what is now called Boolean logic, which became the basis of the modern digital computer, Boole is regarded in hindsight as a founder of the field of computer science.|
|Nikołaj Rimski-Korsakow (1844-1908)|
|Stefan Banach (1892–1945)|
|A Polish mathematician. He is generally considered to have been one of the 20th century's most important and influential mathematicians.|